NASTyLinker: NIL-Aware Scalable Transformer-based Entity Linker

Abstract: Entity Linking (EL) is the task of detecting mentions of entities in text and disambiguating them to a reference knowledge base. Most prevalent EL approaches assume that the reference knowledge base is complete. In practice, however, it is necessary to deal with the case of linking to an entity that is not contained in the knowledge base (NIL entity). Recent works have shown that, instead of focusing only on affinities between mentions and entities, considering inter-mention affinities can be used to represent NIL entities by producing clusters of mentions. At the same time, inter-mention affinities can help to substantially improve linking performance for known entities. With NASTyLinker, we introduce an EL approach that is aware of NIL-entities and produces corresponding mention clusters while maintaining high linking performance for known entities. The approach clusters mentions and entities based on dense representations from Transformers and resolves conflicts (if more than one entity is assigned to a cluster) by computing transitive mention-entity affinities. We show the effectiveness and scalability of NASTyLinker on NILK, a dataset that is explicitly constructed to evaluate EL with respect to NIL-entities. Further, we apply the presented approach to an actual EL task, namely to knowledge graph population by linking entities in Wikipedia listings, and provide an analysis of the outcome.

Transformer-based Subject Entity Detection in Wikipedia Listings

Abstract: In tasks like question answering or text summarisation, it is essential to have background knowledge about the relevant entities. The information about entities - in particular, about long-tail or emerging entities - in publicly available knowledge graphs like DBpedia or CaLiGraph is far from complete. In this paper, we present an approach that exploits the semi-structured nature of listings (like enumerations and tables) to identify the main entities of the listing items (i.e., of entries and rows). These entities, which we call subject entities, can be used to increase the coverage of knowledge graphs. Our approach uses a transformer network to identify subject entities at the token-level and surpasses an existing approach in terms of performance while being bound by fewer limitations. Due to a flexible input format, it is applicable to any kind of listing and is, unlike prior work, not dependent on entity boundaries as input. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the complete Wikipedia corpus and extracting 40 million mentions of subject entities with an estimated precision of 71% and recall of 77%. The results are incorporated in the most recent version of CaLiGraph.

The CaLiGraph Ontology as a Challenge for OWL Reasoners

Abstract: CaLiGraph is a large-scale cross-domain knowledge graph generated from Wikipedia by exploiting the category system, list pages, and other list structures in Wikipedia, containing more than 15 million typed entities and around 10 million relation assertions. Other than knowledge graphs such as DBpedia and YAGO, whose ontologies are comparably simplistic, CaLiGraph also has a rich ontology, comprising more than 200,000 class restrictions. Those two properties – a large A-box and a rich ontology – make it an interesting challenge for benchmarking reasoners. In this paper, we show that a reasoning task which is particularly relevant for CaLiGraph, i.e., the materialization of owl:hasValue constraints into assertions between individuals and between individuals and literals, is insufficiently supported by available reasoning systems. We provide differently sized benchmark subsets of CaLiGraph, which can be used for performance analysis of reasoning systems.

Information Extraction from Co-Occurring Similar Entities

Abstract: Knowledge about entities and their interrelations is a crucial factor of success for tasks like question answering or text summarization. Publicly available knowledge graphs like Wikidata or DBpedia are, however, far from being complete. In this paper, we explore how information extracted from similar entities that co-occur in structures like tables or lists can help to increase the coverage of such knowledge graphs. In contrast to existing approaches, we do not focus on relationships within a listing (e.g., between two entities in a table row) but on the relationship between a listing's subject entities and the context of the listing. To that end, we propose a descriptive rule mining approach that uses distant supervision to derive rules for these relationships based on a listing's context. Extracted from a suitable data corpus, the rules can be used to extend a knowledge graph with novel entities and assertions. In our experiments we demonstrate that the approach is able to extract up to 3M novel entities and 30M additional assertions from listings in Wikipedia. We find that the extracted information is of high quality and thus suitable to extend Wikipedia-based knowledge graphs like DBpedia, YAGO, and CaLiGraph. For the case of DBpedia, this would result in an increase of covered entities by roughly 50%.

Entity Extraction from Wikipedia List Pages

Abstract: When it comes to factual knowledge about a wide range of domains, Wikipedia is often the prime source of information on the web. DBpedia and YAGO, as large cross-domain knowledge graphs, encode a subset of that knowledge by creating an entity for each page in Wikipedia, and connecting them through edges. It is well known, however, that Wikipedia-based knowledge graphs are far from complete. Especially, as Wikipedia's policies permit pages about subjects only if they have a certain popularity, such graphs tend to lack information about less well-known entities. Information about these entities is oftentimes available in the encyclopedia, but not represented as an individual page. In this paper, we present a two-phased approach for the extraction of entities from Wikipedia's list pages, which have proven to serve as a valuable source of information. In the first phase, we build a large taxonomy from categories and list pages with DBpedia as a backbone. With distant supervision, we extract training data for the identification of new entities in list pages that we use in the second phase to train a classification model. With this approach we extract over 700k new entities and extend DBpedia with 7.5M new type statements and 3.8M new facts of high precision.

Uncovering the Semantics of Wikipedia Categories

Abstract: The Wikipedia category graph serves as the taxonomic backbone for large-scale knowledge graphs like YAGO or Probase, and has been used extensively for tasks like entity disambiguation or semantic similarity estimation. Wikipedia's categories are a rich source of taxonomic as well as non-taxonomic information. The category German science fiction writers, for example, encodes the type of its resources (Writer), as well as their nationality (German) and genre (Science Fiction). Several approaches in the literature make use of fractions of this encoded information without exploiting its full potential. In this paper, we introduce an approach for the discovery of category axioms that uses information from the category network, category instances, and their lexicalisations. With DBpedia as background knowledge, we discover 703k axioms covering 502k of Wikipedia's categories and populate the DBpedia knowledge graph with additional 4.4 M relation assertions and 3.3 M type assertions at more than 87% and 90% precision, respectively.


The complete code for the extraction of CaLiGraph is available on GitHub.


The complete dataset is hosted on Zenodo. All files are gzipped and in N-Triples format. The data is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.
The complete dataset is also available on the DBpedia Databus. Additionally, a version of DBpedia enriched with CaLiGraph is provided as collection.


Metadata about the dataset which is described using void vocabulary.


Class definitions, property definitions, restrictions, and labels of the CaLiGraph ontology.


Mapping of classes and properties to the DBpedia ontology.


Provenance information about classes (i.e. which Wikipedia category or list page has been used to create this class).


Definition of instances and (non-transitive) types.


Transitive types for instances (can also be induced by a reasoner).


Labels for instances.


Relations between instances derived from the class restrictions of the ontology (can also be induced by a reasoner).


Mapping of instances to respective DBpedia instances.


Provenance information about instances (e.g. if the instance has been extracted from a Wikipedia list page).


Additional instances of CaLiGraph that are not in DBpedia.
This file is not part of CaLiGraph but should rather be used as an extension to DBpedia.


Additional types of CaLiGraph that are not in DBpedia.
This file is not part of CaLiGraph but should rather be used as an extension to DBpedia.


Additional relations of CaLiGraph that are not in DBpedia.
This file is not part of CaLiGraph but should rather be used as an extension to DBpedia.